[ENGRAVED MAP OF THE PROPOSED BOUNDARIES BETWEEN MARYLAND AND PENNSYLVANIA]
by [Pennsylvania and Maryland]: Senex, John
[London: John Senex, 1734. Copperplate map. 15 x 10 inches. Old fold lines, minor edge wear, slight paper loss to bottom right corner, well outside the plate mark. Expertly backed on archival tissue Very good. A rare copperplate engraved map relating to the boundary dispute between Pennsylvania and Maryland. This dispute between the Lords Baltimore as proprietors of the colony of Maryland and the Penns in the same role in Pennsylvania led to decades of lawsuits, culminating in the famous Mason-Dixon survey. The story of the Penn-Baltimore Agreement has been told in great detail by Nicholas Wainwright in his article, "Tale of a Runaway Cape: The Penn-Baltimore Agreement of 1732." From the time of William Penn's original grant of Pennsylvania in 1682, he was at loggerheads with the Lords Baltimore over the boundary lines between the colonies. Sporadic efforts to resolve the problem finally became serious negotiations in 1731. Both sides put forward maps of their own as guides, and indeed, as Wainwright says, "The map was really the key to the Agreement." Baltimore insisted on the use of his map, and the Penns, who were under great money pressure and eager for an agreement, acceded, as they did to a number of Baltimore's demands. Baltimore's map was in due course taken to the shop of John Senex, in Fleet Street, where it was engraved. One proof strike of it, with a scale of miles, survives in the Penn Papers at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The scale was later erased and the map printed on each of the six final copies of the agreement. With the cartography agreed to, the rest of the bargain was quickly struck. On May 10, 1732, Baltimore and each of the Penn brothers signed the document and placed their seals on its bottom edge. When the agreement was reported in America in 1733, the machinery was set in motion to survey the boundaries. But the deal was unpopular in Maryland, and Lord Baltimore soon discovered another problem: his map was inaccurate, and the mislocation of Cape Henelopen on the Delaware coast gave the Penns more land than he had thought. With his colony unhappy and feeling he had given up more than intended, Calvert sought to abrogate the agreement. As a result, in 1734 he sued in Chancery Court in London, charging fraud. The Penns, naturally, replied that the agreement was based on Baltimore's map, not theirs. Finally, in 1750 the Penns won the case, with costs, and the surveying could proceed. However, it was not until 1763 that both sides agreed to hire Mason and Dixon and share the costs of the survey. This is a second state of the original 1732 Senex plate (engraved by him and meant to accompany the six manuscript copies of the May 10, 1732 ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT), and originally accompanied the 1734 publication of TRUE COPIES OF I. THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN LORD BALTIMORE AND MESSIEURS PENN...., one of the key documents in the ensuing lawsuits. The maps that came with the 1734 work have a double-ruled border, as does the present copy. The work was published, according to Streeter, "perhaps as a memorandum for use in petitions made to George II that year by Lord Baltimore and Richard Penn." The map was sometimes laid in, accounting for the current independence of this map without any visible signs of having been bound in, and explaining how copies of TRUE COPIES... are found without the map as often as with it. A landmark piece of American cartography. STREETER 951. SABIN 60743. EUROPEAN AMERICANA 734/16a. Nicholas B. Wainwright, "Tale of a Runaway Cape: The Penn- Baltimore Agreement of 1732" in THE PENNSYLVANIA MAGAZINE OF HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY, Vol. 87, pp.251-93 (July 1963). (Inventory #: WRCAM50293)
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