THE DEFINITIVE TREATY OF PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP, BETWEEN HIS BRITANNICK MAJESTY, AND THE MOST CHRISTIAN KING. SIGNED AT VERSAILLES, THE 3d OF SEPTEMBER, 1783. [bound with:] THE DEFINITIVE TREATY OF PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP, BETWEEN HIS BRITANNICK MAJESTY, AND THE KING OF SPAIN. SIGNED AT VERSAILLES, THE 3d OF SEPTEMBER, 1783. [bound with:] PRELIMINARY ARTICLES OF PEACE, BETWEEN HIS BRITANNICK MAJESTY, AND THE STATES GENERAL OF THE UNITED PROVINCES. SIGNED AT PARIS, THE 2d OF SEPTEMBER, 1783. [bound with:] THE DEFINITIVE TREATY OF PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP, BETWEEN HIS BRITANNICK MAJESTY, AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. SIGNED AT PARIS, THE 3d OF SEPTEMBER, 1783
by [Treaty of Paris]
London: T. Harrison and S. Brooke, 1783. 40; 35; 10; 12pp. Quarto. Contemporary half calf and marbled boards, gilt leather label. Contemporary notation on front pastedown. Negligible foxing. Fine. The four treaties comprising the Peace of Paris (hree Definitive and one Preliminary)which ended the American Revolutionary War and restored peace to Europe. Included here is the first English edition of the vitally important Treaty of Paris between the new United States and Great Britain, preceded only by the Paris edition. Also included are Great Britain's treaties with France, Spain, and the Netherlands, all of great significance for the future of North America. The treaty between the United States and Great Britain (signed Sept. 3, 1783) is a document of seminal importance, marking the end of the American Revolution and the birth of the United States as a recognized and legitimate nation. Peace negotiations between the United States and Great Britain began in Paris on April 12, 1782. The United States was represented by Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, John Adams, and Henry Laurens. While most peace treaties address the issues that sparked the conflict, the treaty between the United States and Great Britain is most concerned with drawing the boundaries of a new nation. The treaty is often imprecisely worded and raised issues that would take decades to resolve. Article One officially recognizes the sovereignty and independence of the United States. The treaty goes on to delimit the boundary between British North America and the United States, from Canada in the north, across the Great Lakes, down the Mississippi River, and southeast to Florida. The people of the United States maintain important fishing rights in Newfoundland and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, and provisions are made to compensate Loyalists for property lost during the conflict. It is also agreed that citizens of both nations would enjoy navigation rights on the Mississippi. The treaty was signed on Sept. 3, 1783 and immediately printed. The U.S.-British treaty was one of several treaties negotiated by Britain during the war, including settlements with the French, Spanish, and Dutch. The treaties between Britain and those states (in the definitive versions, excepting the Dutch) are also included in this volume. In her treaty with France, Great Britain returned St. Lucia to the French, ceded Tobago, and recognized the French claim to the tiny Canadian islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon (still French colonies today) while recovering Dominca, Grenada, St. Kitts, Nevis, and Montserrat in the Caribbean, and Fort St. Jean (i.e. St. John's) in New Brunswick, all seized by the French in the course of the conflict. With regard to Spain, Britain kept Gibraltar while Spain took back Minorca and West Florida (which had been ceded to the English in 1763), and effectively swapped New Providence Island and the rest of the Bahamas to England for East Florida, another "possession" which proved impossible to exploit. Protracted British negotiations with the Dutch over preliminary articles of peace held up the conclusion of the other treaties at Paris. In fact, it was not until a day after the Preliminary Articles of Peace with the Netherlands were finalized on Sept. 2, 1783 that the British signed their definitive treaties with the United States, France, and Spain. In this truce between the British and the Dutch (the definitive treaty was not signed until 1784) it was simply agreed to restore the conquests of each, save for Negapatam, the coastal port which since 1660 had been the principal Dutch possession in the Indian sub-continent and which Great Britain retained. African colonies also changed hands, France keeping Senegal and Goree, and Britain and Gambia. All told, a beautiful contemporary collection of these monumentally important documents, the full legal recognition of the United States. ESTC T53346, T53347, T80895, T53339. AMERICAN CONTROVERSY 83-42, 83-41, 83-47, 83-43. HOWES D212, "aa." CHURCH 1197. Richard B. Morris, THE PEACEMAKERS: THE GREAT POWERS AND AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE (New York, 1965) is still the best single study of the negotiations which led to the several treaties ending the American Revolution.
(Inventory #: WRCAM50618)
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