ca. 1960 · n.p.
"" 3. Early erroneous conception about its transmission - spread by way of the nose - strict neurotropism …""4. Proof that it is primarily an infection of the alimentary tract - portal of entry - the mouth - multiplication in the intestinal tract and also in the pharynx … invasion of the central nervous system where destruction of large numbers of motor neurons causes irreversible paralysis and sometimes death.6. Discovery that naturally occurring polioviruses multiply in nonnervous tissues in cultures …7. IPV effects and its limitations - epidemics in area with extensive use of IPVOPV - history and problems in its development …Field tests after 1957 WHO recommendations …First mass use for routine immunization on 100 million persons under 20 in USSR …Need for diff. OPV strategies in temperate climate developed countires and in subtropical and tropical countries undeveloped counties with poor sanitation + hygiene …8. Problems in eradication …9. Needs for global eradication …""Although his presentation is not dated, it does describe the mass field testing in the USSR which occurred around 1960, thus the presentation was written after that event. After the Soviet trials succeeded in 1960, the U.S. Public Health Service approved the vaccine in 1961 for manufacture in the United States.Sabin’s live-virus, oral polio vaccine (administered in drops or on a sugar cube) soon replaced Salk’s killed-virus, injectable vaccine in many parts of the world. In 1994 the WHO declared that naturally occurring poliovirus had been eradicated from the Western Hemisphere owing to repeated mass immunization campaigns with the Sabin vaccine in Central and South America. The only occurrences of paralytic poliomyelitis in the West after this time were the few cases caused by the live-virus vaccine itself.A spectacular research report of one of the most important medical pharmaceutical advances from that period." (Inventory #: 61048)