History of the Inductive Sciences, from the earliest to the present time. The third edition, with additions. In three volumes.
by WHEWELL, William, D.D. (1794-1866).
London:: John W. Parker, 1857., 1857. Small 8vo. xxxii, 394; xii, 488; xiv, 565,  pp. Original full tan calf, gilt-tooled image of Trinity College, Cambridge on each cover, all edges marbled, massed gilt spine, raised bands, deep red and brown paired spine labels. Near fine. "The History had no rivals in its day and remains, despite unevenness, one of the important surveys of science from the Greeks to the nineteenth century. Whewell appreciated the importance of Greek science, especially astronomy, but showed typical disregard for the contributions of medieval scientists. His assessment of the importance of contributions of such major figures as Galileo and Descartes suffers from a heavy intrusion of religious and philosophical biases. But his treatment of Newton and other modern mathematical scientists is fair and sometimes brilliant, and is based throughout upon detailed considerations of texts." – DSB. "His large-scale History of the Inductive Sciences (first edition published 1837) was a survey of science from ancient to modern times. He insisted upon completing this work before writing his Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, founded upon their history. Moreover, Whewell sent proof-sheets of the History to his many scientist-friends to ensure the accuracy of his accounts. Besides knowing about the history of science, Whewell had first-hand knowledge of scientific practice: he was actively involved in science in several important ways. In 1825 he traveled to Berlin and Vienna to study mineralogy and crystallography with Mohs and other acknowledged masters of the field. He published numerous papers in the field, as well as a monograph, and is still credited with making important contributions to giving a mathematical foundation to crystallography. He also made contributions to the science of tidal research, pushing for a large-scale world-wide project of tidal observations; he won a Royal Society gold medal for this accomplishment. (For more on Whewell's contributions to science, see Becher 1986; Ruse 1991; Ducheyne 2010a; Snyder 2011)." "William Whewell (1794–1866) was one of the most important and influential figures in nineteenth-century Britain. Whewell, a polymath, wrote extensively on numerous subjects, including mechanics, mineralogy, geology, astronomy, political economy, theology, educational reform, international law, and architecture, as well as the works that remain the most well-known today in philosophy of science, history of science, and moral philosophy. He was one of the founding members and a president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, a fellow of the Royal Society, president of the Geological Society, and longtime Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. In his own time his influence was acknowledged by the major scientists of the day, such as John Herschel, Charles Darwin, Charles Lyell and Michael Faraday, who frequently turned to Whewell for philosophical and scientific advice, and, interestingly, for terminological assistance. Whewell invented the terms "anode," "cathode," and "ion" for Faraday. In response to a challenge by the poet S.T. Coleridge in 1833, Whewell invented the English word "scientist;" before this time the only terms in use were "natural philosopher" and "man of science". Whewell was greatly influenced by his association with three of his fellow students at Cambridge: Charles Babbage, John Herschel, and Richard Jones. Over the winter of 1812 and spring of 1813, the four met for what they called "Philosophical Breakfasts" at which they discussed induction and scientific method, among other topics (see Snyder 2011)." "Whewell's first explicit, lengthy discussion of induction is found in his Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, founded upon their History, which was originally published in 1840 (a second, enlarged edition appeared in 1847, and the third edition appeared as three separate works published between 1858 and 1860). He called his induction "Discoverers' Induction" and explained that it is used to discover both phenomenal and causal laws. Whewell considered himself to be a follower of Bacon, and claimed to be "renovating" Bacon's inductive method; thus one volume of the third edition of the Philosophy is entitled Novum Organon Renovatum. Whewell followed Bacon in rejecting the standard, overly-narrow notion of induction that holds induction to be merely simple enumeration of instances. Rather, Whewell explained that, in induction, "there is a New Element added to the combination [of instances] by the very act of thought by which they were combined" (1847, II, 48). This "act of thought" is a process Whewell called "colligation." Colligation, according to Whewell, is the mental operation of bringing together a number of empirical facts by "superinducing" upon them a conception which unites the facts and renders them capable of being expressed by a general law. The conception thus provides the "true bond of Unity by which the phenomena are held together" (1847, II, 46), by providing a property shared by the known members of a class (in the case of causal laws, the colligating property is that of sharing the same cause)." – Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Contents: I: History of the Greek School Philosophy; History of Greek Astronomy; History of Physical Science in the Middles Ages; History of Formal Astronomy; additions. II: History of Mechanics, including fluid mechanics; History of Physical Astronomy; History of Acoustics; History of Optics; History of Thermotics and Atmology; additions. III: History of Electricity; History of Magnetism; History of Galvanism, or Voltic Electricity; History of Chemistry; History of Mineralogy, History of Systematic Botany and Zoology; History of Physiology and Comparative Anatomy; History of Geology; with additions.
(Inventory #: S13242)
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