Le Musee de L'Hopital Saint-Louis; Iconographie des Maladies Cutanees et Syphilitiques avec texte Explicatif.
by Musee de L'Hopital Saint-Louis; BESNIER, Ernest (1831-1909); FOURNIER, Jean Alfred (1832-1914); TENNESON, Quentin Joseph Henry (1836-1913); HALLOPEAU, Henry (1842-1919); DU CASTEL, J. (1846-1905), FEULARD, Henry (1858-1897).
Paris:: Rueff et Cie, 1895-97., 1895. Folio. , iv, 346 pp. 50 chromolithographic plates, 23 engravings, 18 photogravures. Contemporary half crimson gilt-stamped morocco, marbled boards, raised bands. Very good. RARE. First edition. A MASTERPIECE OF PHOTO-CHROMOLITHOGRAPHY. "The authors of this book were senior doctors at the Hôpital Saint-Louis. Besnier presided over the 4th International Congress of Dermatologists, held in Paris in 1900. The museum had been founded by Devergie in 1865. During his 25 year long career, Devergie commissioned water colour paintings of the major skin diseases for use in his lectures. It was not long before these were supplemented by photographs and moulages. Between 1867 and 1894 the Italian moulage artist M. Baretta (1834-1925) produced 1,800 such models. He devised the internal colouring technique. This is a technique whereby the colours are applied in between the layers of wax. The effect is one of transparency and greater similarity to the colour of human skin (Zanca and Tagliavini). The various separate lesions have been portrayed exceptionally well. Less attention was paid to facial expressions. The museum now has a collection of 4,667 moulages at its disposal (Dahm). The finest among them were reproduced in this book. The printing technique used was photochromy." – Franz Ehring, Skin Diseases: 5 Centuries of Scientific Illustration. pp. 176-177. "Ernest Besnier was born in Honfleur in 1831. He studied in Paris, and was a celebrated pupil of Hardy and Bazin. Having been graduated in 1857, he turned his attention exclusively to dermatology, and by 1872 had become a chief at l'Hôpital Saint Louis." "Besnier was active in all phases of dermatology. Although essentially French in his diathetic thinking, he was responsible for translating Kaposi's text into French, with masterful annotations by himself. His monograph on psoriasis, his work on atopic dermatitis..., and his work on eczema entitle him to his place as the leading French dermatologist of his time." - Shelley & Crissey, Classics in Clinical Dermatology, p. 246. "Ernest Besnier was the unquestioned master of French dermatology towards the end of the 19th century. When he took over the leadership of the Parisian dermatology clinic in 1873, French dermatology had lost its premier position and fallen behind the Vienna school not only in regards to research and teaching but also in terms of space and equipment. Besnier reformed French dermatology, incorporating many advances from Vienna, such as establishing laboratories for bacteriology, mycology and histopathology and encouraging basic research. As he retired just before the turn of the century, French dermatology had closed the gap." "Ernest Henri Besnier was born on 21 April 1831 in Honfleur, a small village in the Normandy. Since his father was a customs official, the family moved frequently, including stays in Marseille and Orleans. Besnier studied medicine in Paris and advanced to Interne des Hôpitaux in 1853. His teachers included Ernest Bazin, Philippe Boyer, and Henri-Louis Royer, whose niece Besnier married a few years later. In 1857 his doctoral thesis on the diagnosis and therapy of ileus was accepted. He continued to address mainly internal medicine themes. Named Medecin des Hôpitaux in 1863, he published between 1864 and 1872 studies ranging from cholera to diseases of the spleen to rheumatic diseases to gall stones, becoming one of the best known internists in France. As signs of recognition he was elected Vice-President of the Societe anatomique in 1861 and Secretary-General of the Societe Medicale des hôpitaux in 1864. He served as a military physician in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/1871 and was awarded the highest military honor, being named a Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur." "When Bazin retired as head of dermatology clinic at Hôpital Saint-Louis at the end of 1872, Besnier was the highest ranking faculty member and entitled to the position. Although no one dreamed he would desert internal medicine for dermatology, he accepted the challenge. With little experience but great energy he started his new job on 1 January 1873. Within a few months he had read the entire dermatologic literature, concentrating on the works of Bazin and Erasmus Wilson; he profited greatly from the immense clinical experience of his colleague Charles Lailler, who tactfully assumed the role of the old experienced tutor. Besnier also benefited from working together with Adrien Doyon, the founder and editor of the Annales de Dermatologie et de Syphiligraphie; Doyen made him aware of the great advances in dermatology in Germany and Austria. With Besnier' encouragement, Doyen translated into French Moriz Kaposi's textbook from 1880 Pathologie und Therapie der Hautkrankheiten. Besnier employed his by now encyclopedic knowledge of the dermatologic literature to provide commentaries which enhanced Doyen's translation. The French edition appeared just one year later 1881 and dominated the training of dermatologists in France for the next two decades and helped to reduce the differences between the French and German-speaking schools of dermatology. In 1881 Besnier also became editor of the Annales de Dermatologie et de Syphiligraphie and was named a member of the medical academy." "Kaposi's Clinic [in] Vienna was the model of a modern dermatology clinic for Besnier. In 1882, he asked Doyen for a detailed report over the Viennese clinic, which was published in the Annales de Dermatologie et de Syphiligraphie and including information not only about the teaching program and costs of inpatient care, but also covered such details as patient clothing, the size of hospital rooms, and how instruction signs were posted on the walls. When compared to Vienna, the conditions in Hôpital Saint-Louis were primitive. Besnier described his outpatient clinic as a sleazy ramshackle hut completely unworthy of a great capital city. He demanded the construction of new inpatient wards and emphasized the importance of a histopathology laboratory. He also established the first laboratory for bacteriology and mycology at Hôpital Saint-Louis. Besnier demanded a change from purely descriptive dermatology, turned against the nosologic speculations of his predecessor Bazin which he felt had lost validity through the groundbreaking work of Pasteur and demanded the incorporation of knowledge from bacteriology and histopathology into dermatology. In addition, he tried to get dermatology incorporated into general medical education, so that medical students could not graduate without some exposure to dermatology – that had not been the case previously." "Besnier's daily activities were highly regimented. He arrived every morning at 8:45; once a week he made inpatient rounds, while the other days were devoted to specialty clinics. After each patient contact, Besnier washed his hands and cleaned under his fingernails. He was always carefully dressed and reserved. his students, including Louis Brocq, Raymond Sabouraud, Lucien Jacquet (1860-1914), George Thibierge, Felix Balzer (1849-1929) and Emile Leredde (1866-1926) consider him the ideal academic teacher. He stimulated them to produce many papers. His lectures were clear and contained a great deal of clinical and histopathological information embedded in a broad theoretical background. They attracted a wide range of listeners ranging from pharmacists and medical students to guest physicians from abroad. in 1888 Besnier started weekly meetings on Thursday for all physicians working at Hôpital Saint-Louis during which all the interesting cases of the week were discussed. Out of this meeting evolved in 1889 the Societe francaise de Dermatologie et de Syphiligraphie with Besnier as a founding father. He served initially as Vice-President and then became President in 1892." "Besnier published very little. In 1879 he described the diagnostic possibilities made available by histologic examination and coined the term biopsy. In 1889 he described the diagnostic possibilities made available by histologic examination and coined the term biopsy. In 1889 he described lupus pernio, which was recognized a few years later as a manifestation of sarcoidosis and in 1892 he provided the first precise description of atopicdermatitis. In order to properly describe this illness, Besnier stated that one had to break away from the tyranny of Willan's and consider not only the primary lesions but all the findings. He stated that the central symptom is pruritus, intensive pruritus, waxing and waning, often worse in the evening, with seasonal remissions and exacerbations. The lesion morphology in contrast had little meaning; instead he pointed out that one absolute fundamental characteristic was that none of the lesions associated with or triggered by the illness were specific. Besnier did not use the terms lichen or eczema, employing instead lichenification and eczematization to emphasize that the skin changes were not specific, but instead banal lesions which resulted from itching and scratching. The disease often started in early childhood and took a variable but chronic course. Sometimes the disease left the skin and presented then primarily as emphysema, bronchitis, asthma, hay fever or less often gastrointestinal problems. Since he felt a congenital tendency towards pruritus existed, which then could appear in varying degrees of severity, Besnier designated the disease as Prurigo diathesique." – Löser, Plewig, and Burgdorf, Pantheon of Dermatology, pp. 89-93. Franz Ehring, Skin Diseases: 5 Centuries of Scientific Illustration. pp. 176-177; Löser, Plewig, and Burgdorf, Pantheon of Dermatology, pp. 89-93; Shelley & Crissey, Classics in Clinical Dermatology, p. 246.
(Inventory #: M13445)
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