London:: Taylor and Francis, 1924., 1924. Thick 8vo. 719-736 [article], vii, 1144 [entire journal] pp. 27 plates (2 folding). Half black calf over black cloth, gilt-stamped spine and red leather spine label; hinges broken, leather heavily worn. University of Sutherland rubber stamp, Thomas Reed bookseller label. Fair, internally very good (needs to be rebound). FIRST PRINTING of Stoner's important paper – one that brought him rapid recognition – in the field of quantum mechanics establishing "Stoner's rule" on the orbits of electrons that led Wolfgang Pauli to formulate his exclusion principle. "The 100th anniversary of the Bohr atom this year  is an opportune time to call attention to a little known paper that Edmund Stoner, then a student of Ernest Rutherford and Ralph Fowler at Cambridge University, wrote in 1924. Called 'The distribution of electrons among atomic levels,' it was the first paper to give a correct formulation of the Bohr atom for many electrons. "In Arnold Sommerfeld's preface to the fourth edition of his Atomic Structure and Spectral Lines, the author gave special mention to 'einen grossen Fortschritt' (a great advancement) brought about by Stoner's analysis. As a result, Stoner's paper came to the attention of Wolfgang Pauli and was of great value to his formulation of the exclusion principle in quantum physics. Subsequently, Stoner applied the exclusion principle to calculate the maximum mass of white dwarfs a year before Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, who generally is given credit for the discovery" (Nauenberg, p. 10). "Electrons with the same principal quantum number n are said to form a shell. With n fixed one can consider electrons with the same n and the same azimuthal number l. This collection of electrons forms a subshell of the shell defined by n. With n and l fixed there are 2l+1 possible values for m1 (-l ? m1 ? l), and two possible falues for ms. This means that the maximal number of electrons that can occupy a subshell, without violating Pauli's exclusion principle, is 2(2l + 1); this fact is known as Stoner's rule" (Williams, p. 261). "Stoner's rule led Pauli to postulate the exclusion of equivalent orbits: it is impossible for two electrons in an atom to be simultaneously in the same quantum state" (Weyl, p. 244). "Stoner's career was very much centered around magnetism. He studied in Cambridge where in 1925 he obtained his doctorate at the Cavendish Laboratory under Rutherford who had moved there from Manchester in 1919. . . . Stoner is best known for his theory of ferromagnetism of itinerant electrons in metals" (Enz, p. 124). (Inventory #: S11523)
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