[No place]: Privately printed, 1847., 1847. 8vo. 222 x 138 mm. 42 [4, advertisements] pp. 2 lithographed plates (1 partly hand-colored) and 6 figures, list of author's works. Original blind and gilt-stamped red cloth, with gilt motif of temple on upper cover, gilt spine title; spine ends worn, some soiling, small paper label on upper cover. Neat bookplate of the Stirling Public Library ("The Thomson Collection"), [Glasgow]. Very good copy. INSCRIBED BY THE AUTHOR on verso of front endpaper: "The Honble Charles Villiers, MP, from the Author." INSCRIBED BY THE AUTHOR TO CHARLES VILLIERS, MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT. FIRST EDITION. This paper reports the author's geological observations on the Temple of Serapis at Pozzuoli, an ancient ruin situated on the seacoast near Naples that Babbage first studied during his European tour in 1828. From the strata in which [the temple] was embedded and encrustation on the marble columns [Babbage] was able to estimate the sea level at various earlier dates. . . . [In March 1834]. "In some of the rooms of the macellum Babbage found a dark brownish encrustation of salts, and a thicker encrustation up to a height of about 9 feet (2.7 m) from floor level. These have been interpreted as showing that as the building lowered, a little lake formed and allowed water to enter the building without there being a direct connection to the sea, then at a later stage the land subsided to the point where sea water came in, and the Lithophaga started drilling holes in the masonry up to 19 feet (5.8 m) from floor level." Wikip. [See: Liber, Lucio; Paola Petrosino; Valentina Armiero (2010). "Il Serapeo ed i Granai Imperiali di Pozzuoli = The Serapis Temple and the Imperial Granaries of Pozzuoli". Italian Journal of Geosciences 129 (2): 237–50. An abstract of Babbage's paper was privately printed the same year (see Van Sinderen 1980, no. 48). A full treatment was not made until 1847, when the paper was privately printed with some additions. There is also a title listing of his publications. Both Babbage and Charles Lyell prominently illustrated the Temple of Serapis. For Lyell he used it for the frontispiece to the Principles of Geology (1830); Babbage includes two lithographs. John Herschel and Babbage are both credited with making the theory of geosynclines. As the key image for a certain kind of geological movement, the Temple of Serapis was later analyzed in great detail by Eduard Suess (1831-1914) in his theory of global plate tectonics and geopaleography. See: T. Nield, Supercontinent: Ten Billion Years in the Life of Our Planet. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, (2007). PROVENANCE: Honourable Charles Pelham Villiers, 1802-1866, was a British lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1835 to 1898, making him the longest-serving Member of Parliament. He was the son of the Hon. George Villiers and the Hon. Theresa, daughter of John Parker, 1st Baron Boringdon. He was grandson of Thomas Villiers, 1st Earl of Clarendon and brother of George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon. He was educated at East India Company College and St John's College, Cambridge, becoming a barrister at Lincoln's Inn in 1827. He was raised to the rank of an Earl's son in 1839 and thus entitled to be styled the Honourable Charles Pelham Villiers. Both Babbage and Villiers were buried at Kensal Green Cemetery. REFERENCES: Van Sinderen (1980), no. 57; Norman, Origins of Cyberspace 63. See: Naomi Oreskes, The Rejection of Continental Drift: Theory and Method in American Earth Science. Oxford University Press, (1999); Marq de Villiers, The End: Natural Disasters, Manmade Catastrophes, and the Future of Human Survival, (2008). FULL TITLE: Observations on the Temple of Serapis at Pozzuoli Near Naples. With an attempt to explain the causes of the frequent elevation and depression of large portions of the Earth's surface in remote periods . . . Conjectures on the physical condition of the Moon. [PLEASE CONTACT DIRECT FOR FURTHER INFORMATION]. (Inventory #: S13075)
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