London:: Printed by Edward Cave, 1740.. First edition. 8vo. , iv, 85, ; , iv, -216; [v], x, [liv], ; 103,  pp. Frontispiece (Stuart), 3 folding engraved plates – the three folded plates are signed: J. Mynde sc.; the frontispiece is signed I Fayram inven. deli et sculp.; small stab-holes deep in gutter (center) pp. 95-216 (Fluxions). Modern full calf with gilt-extra tooled spine and compartments, black title label, preserving original endleaves. Early armorial bookplates of Thomas Salwey, L.L.D. [ca.1740-60] of Richards Castle [motto: Crucem gerentes salvaegentes], Salop; J.W.L. Glaisher, Sc.D., Trinity. Bookplate of The Francis Galton Laboratory for National Eugenics (Jan. 1930); initials F.N.D. for Florence Nightingale David of University College London. David presented this book to statistician Margaret Stein (married to fellow statistician Charles Stein). EXTREMELY RARE COLLECTION. SAMMELBAND ON BRITISH PROBABILITY, DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS AND MEDICINE ALLUDING TO A SYSTEM OF NEWTONIAN PHILOSOPHY. All first editions and each are rare on the market. The lead work is Simpsons response to and challenge towards Abraham de Moivres (1667-1754), Doctrine of Chances, issued in a second edition in 1738. Simpsons work in the preface directly addresses Mr. De Moivre, I should be poorly ambitious of appearing the Author of a Performance, that would, was every Bird to claim his own Feather, be stript as naked as the Jay in the Fable. See also: Karl Pearson, (edited by Egon Sharpe Pearson), History of Statistics in the 17th and 18th Centuries, (1978), pages 169, 171-2. ¶ Stephen Stigler describes how this book and the authors 1742 title, The Doctrine of Annuities and Reversions, irritated De Moivre. Both titles were based on the work of De Moivre, whom Stigler indicates was intellectually the superior to Simpson. – (Stigler, p. 88). De Moivres second edition of his Annuities book is scathing of Simpsons work, saying he mutilates my Propositions. The two exchanged barbs and accusations as evidenced in their own writings. Stigler observes that Simpson as a mathematician-writer tends to the reactionary and chooses to point out the distribution of errors and not on the mean observation. Even though the position of the body observed might be considered unknown, the distribution of errors was, for Simpson, known. (p. 91). ¶ [ALSO BOUND WITH:] SIMPSON. A New Treatise of Fluxions: wherein the direct and inverse method are demonstrated ... also the doctrine of infinite series ... are amply explained, ... together with a variety of new and curious problems. London : Printed by Tho. Gardner ; For, and are to be had of, the author , 1737. First edition. [WITH:] STUART, Alexander (1673-1742). Three Lectures on Muscular Motion Read before the Royal Society in the Year MDCCXXXVIII William Croone Being a supplement to the Philosophical Transactions London: Printed for T. Woodward; and C. Davis 1739. See: Russell, K.F. British anatomy (2nd ed.), 782. First edition. [WITH:] LANGRISH, Browne (d.1759). A New Essay on Muscular Motion. Founded on Experiments, Observations, and the Newtonian Philosophy. London: Printed for A. Bettesworth and C. Hitch, 1733. First edition. ¶ PROVENANCE: Rev. Thomas Salwey (ca.1705- after or on 1759), of Ludlow, L.L.D. * Salwey was Rector of Richards Castle. He married Constance (only daughter of Francis Biddulph) in 1742. PROVENANCE: James Whitbread Lee Glaisher, Sc.D. (1848-1928), Fellow of Trinity College, was a prolific English mathematician and astronomer. PROVENANCE: Francis Galton Laboratory. Karl Pearson In the twentieth century Francis Galton and Karl Pearson led the way in developing statistics into a mathematical discipline. PROVENANCE: F.N.D. Florence Nightingale David (1909-1993), also known as F. N. David was an English statistician, born in Ivington, Herefordshire, England. ¶ See: Blanco, Mónica. Thomas Simpson: Weaving fluxions in 18th-century London. Historia Mathematica, vol. 41 (1) (2014), pp. 38—81. The main part of this historical paper deals with a comparison of Thomas Simpsons 1737 and 1750 treatises on fluxions, and with their place in the exposition and development of Newtonian calculus in the 18th century. The author highlights some of the differences in emphasis and content between the two works, explaining several of those differences in helpful detail. – Douglas Bridges, Christchurch, New Zealand. REFERENCES: ESTC [Simpson, Laws of Chance] T78204; [Simpson, Fluxions] N7839; [Stuart, Three lectures] N14306; [Langrish] T65047. See: Theodore M. Porter, Karl Pearson: The Scientific Life in a Statistical Age, (2010), page 290-1: Simpson was a scoundrel, supporting himself by converting De Moivres great discoveries into textbook routines. Lowndes p. 1685. FULL TITLE [I]: The Nature and Laws of Chance. Containing, among other Particulars, The Solutions of several abstruse and important Problems... the whole after a new, general, and conspicuous manner, and illustrated with a great variety of examples. [SAMMELBAND WITH FOUR WORKS]. [PLEASE CONTACT DIRECT FOR FURTHER INFORMATION]. (Inventory #: S13085)
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