cream vellum over stiff boards, tooled in blind, title in brown ink by hand on spine which has raised bands
1767 - 1768·Lugduni Batauorum (Leyden)
by EURIPIDES and VALCKENAER Ludov. Casp., translator
Lugduni Batauorum (Leyden): Ioann, Luzac & Ioann. le Mair, 1767 - 1768. cream vellum over stiff boards, tooled in blind, title in brown ink by hand on spine which has raised bands. Vellum starting to split on front hinge, a little dust soiled, a few preliminary and terminal leaves a little browned at edges, else fine. Small folio. xxviii, 1-322, xviii;1-311 Illustrated with one copper plate engraving Text in greek on left pages and in Latin on right pages Euripides (c. 480 - 406 BC) was a tragedian of classical Athens. He is one of the few whose plays have survived, with the others being Aeschylus, Sophocles, and potentially Euphorion. Some ancient scholars attributed 95 plays to him but according to the Suda it was 92 at most. Of these, 18 or 19 have survived more or less complete and there are also fragments, some substantial, of most of the other plays. More of his plays have survived intact than those of Aeschylus and Sophocles together, partly due to mere chance and partly because his popularity grew as theirs declinedhe became, in the Hellenistic Age, a cornerstone of ancient literary education, along with Homer, Demosthenes and Menander.Euripides is identified with theatrical innovations that have profoundly influenced drama down to modern times, especially in the representation of traditional, mythical heroes as ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances. This new approach led him to pioneer developments that later writers adapted to comedy, some of which are characteristic of romance. Yet he also became "the most tragic of poets", focusing on the inner lives and motives of his characters in a way previously unknown. He was "the creator of...that cage which is the theatre of Shakespeare's Othello, Racine's Phèdre, of Ibsen and Strindberg," in which "...imprisoned men and women destroy each other by the intensity of their loves and hates", and yet he was also the literary ancestor of comic dramatists as diverse as Menander and George Bernard Shaw. He was also unique among the writers of ancient Athens for the sympathy he demonstrated towards all victims of society, including women. His conservative male audiences were frequently shocked by the 'heresies' he put into the mouths of characters, such as these words of his heroine Medea: Sooner would I stand Three times to face their battles, shield in hand, Than bear one child!His contemporaries associated him with Socrates as a leader of a decadent intellectualism, both of them being frequently lampooned by comic poets such as Aristophanes. Whereas Socrates was eventually put on trial and executed as a corrupting influence, Euripides chose a voluntary exile in old age, dying in Macedonia. Recent scholarship casts doubt on ancient biographies of Euripides. For example, it is possible that he never visited Macedonia at all, or, if he did, he might have been drawn there by King Archelaus with incentives that were also offered to other artists. Lodewijk Caspar Valckenaer (1715 – 1785) was a Dutch classical scholar, at Leiden. He was a follower of Tiberius Hemsterhuis, and his successor in 1766 in the chair of Greek at Leiden [University]. He was born in Leeuwarden - wikipedia. (Inventory #: 34023)
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